Cappadocia Guide.Geological Formations.Cappadocia Villages.Underground Cities.Soganli.Ihlara.Contact.
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Cappadocia Guide Geological Formations
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©Photos and text by archaeologist Mehmet Çuhadar


The surrealistic geological formation of Cappadocia is one of the wonders of the world. It is the result of two opposing forces in nature--volcanic activity in the constructive stage and erosion in the destructive stage.

Wind, climate, mechanical weathering (forces breaking up rocks) rain, and rivers are the types of erosion that gave Cappadocia its unusual, characteristic formations. The Cappadocian climate, with sharp changes of temperature, heavy rains, and melting snow in the spring, plays an important role in the formation of the Cappadocian landscape. In addition, mechanical weathering is responsible for fragmentation because rocks expand when heated and break up as they cool. Water freezing in the cracks can also cause fragmentation. However, the most important sources of erosion are rain and rivers. Heavy rainfall transformed the smooth surface of the plateau into a complex pattern of gullies that followed preexisting fissures in the rocks. Eroded materials were then removed by the rivers. Sometimes streams and rivers made very sharp vertical cuts into the volcanic soil and created isolated pinnacles at the intersection of two or more gullies. Rain and rivers also formed valleys such as Zelve and Goreme.

Cappadocia geological formations, volcanic activity, Cappadocia landscape, erosion, Zelve Valley, Goreme Valley, volcanic soil